Improving Food Safety in Fruit and Vegetable Value Chains in Viet Nam

The increase of pathogenic loads across the value chains—from farm to retail—can be attributed to poor hygienic practices in handling of fruits and vegetables. Photo credit: ADB.

Share on:           


This study analyzes fresh produce for contaminants and explores ways to enhance farm management, market infrastructure, and food safety management.


Fruit and vegetables are essential for good health and generate income for millions of smallholder farmers and other value chain actors in Viet Nam. However, consumers tend to reduce intake as they are concerned about food safety. They are mostly worried about pesticide contamination. Many fruits and vegetables in the country are produced with high usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

A study was conducted to assess food safety in fruit and vegetable value chains in Viet Nam based on primary information through laboratory analysis of samples of selected produce and interviews with stakeholders along the value chain.

Results showed that chemical contaminants were not a major risk factor, but foodborne pathogens are a particular concern for leafy vegetables. While the country has made progress on food safety, clear opportunities exist to improve farm management, market infrastructure, and the capacity of food safety authorities.


Primary data were collected from Ha Noi and surrounding areas. Interviews were conducted with farmers, farm input suppliers, government staff, restaurant owners, supermarket owners, and consumers, among others.

A total of 156 samples were tested for microbial contamination (E. coli and Salmonella), 60 samples were analyzed for residues of five commonly used pesticides, 136 samples were analyzed for heavy metals, and 116 samples were analyzed for nitrate.

Pesticide residue analysis was performed at the National Institute for Food Control, while the other contaminants were analyzed at the Department of Food Processing Technology at the Vietnam National University of Agriculture.

Key Findings

E. coli levels. About 31% of the mustard greens samples collected from farms, 67% of samples collected from wholesale markets, and 82% of samples collected from retail market had E. coli loads above maximum permissible levels. The increase of pathogenic loads across the value chains—from farm to retail—can be attributed to poor hygienic practices in handling of fruits and vegetables. However, in the case of cucumber and dragon fruits, E.coli loads are either not detected or remain within maximum permissible levels.

Harmful chemicals. Samples of dragon fruit, mustard greens, and cucumber were also analyzed for five commonly used chemical pesticides, two heavy metals, and nitrate. Pesticide residue above permissible levels was found only in cucumber. No samples had heavy metals and nitrate concentrations above maximum permissible levels.

Government interventions. The Government of Viet Nam has designated areas for safe vegetable production. These areas currently account for about 40% of Ha Noi’s vegetable area of 12,000 hectares. Vegetable farmers in these areas are encouraged to form producer cooperatives. The government regularly tests soil and water quality, and it tests vegetable produce for pesticide residues once a year. Livestock farming is not allowed in these areas to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. These actions contribute to improving the food safety of vegetables to some extent. And they help government agencies to better support smallholder vegetable farmers and monitor the quality of the produce.

Regulatory environment. Over the past decade, Viet Nam has revised its food safety laws and regulations. The existing frameworks are mainly in line with international standards. However, the implementing capacity of government organizations is rather limited to undertake preventive measures.

  • Organizing smallholder farmers into groups (producers’ cooperatives) and introducing safe vegetable production areas play a catalytic role in promoting fruit and vegetable safety. This study therefore recommends expanding these practices to other parts of the country.
  • Farmers need to be adequately rewarded for safe produce while also subjected to stricter enforcement of existing pesticide regulations. Existing regulations governing pesticide use need to be harmonized. The promotion of safer alternatives to chemical pesticides, such as biopesticides, will also reduce food safety risks. Farmers should be trained in (i) soil fertility management to avoid overuse of fertilizer, (ii) integrated pest and disease management, and (iii) business development to identify new market niches that value quality and safety of food.
  • The government and the private sector should work together to better categorize fruits and vegetables based on food safety and other quality aspects. Such segmentation of markets reduces competition that is solely based on price and volume, which is a disincentive for suppliers of high-quality produce. A section of a wet market could be designated as “safe fruits and vegetables,” showing labels and traceability and supported by regular testing.
  • At the level of food safety management, there is a need for more systematic testing for contaminants and making test results publicly available, which are necessary to guide investments and regain consumer confidence in food safety. There is also a clear need to strengthen the capacity of food safety authorities, both at the national and subnational levels. Food safety management needs to be guided by a clear understanding of and focus on risk factors, systematic use of data, and shared responsibilities between private and public sector actors, as well as preventive measures implemented along the value chain.

The full report is available at

Md. Abul Basher
Senior Natural Resources and Agriculture Specialist, Agriculture, Food, Nature, and Rural Development Sector Office, Sector Group, Asian Development Bank

Md. Abul Basher works on food security and rural development issues, contributes to ADB’s agenda of sustainable development, and supports the bank's knowledge management process on food security and sustainability. Prior to ADB, he taught Economics at Willamette University in the United States and worked as an economist at the World Bank and a researcher at Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies.

Pham Van Hoi
Director, Center for Agricultural Research and Ecological Studies, Vietnam National University of Agriculture

Pham Van Hoi is a lecturer on agroecology. He completed his PhD on Environmental Sociology at Wageningen University & Research in the Netherlands in 2010. He is actively engaged in research, providing consulting services on agroecology and sustainable development for international organizations like FAO, USAID, GRET, Mekong Institute, CGIAR, Enveritas, and Fresh Studio. He has developed urban integrated farming systems, such as chickenponics, kitchenponics, and AIO-farming systems, which have been disseminated in Ha Noi and neighboring provinces.

Tran Thi Dinh
Associate Professor and Head, Department of Food Processing Technology, Vietnam National University of Agriculture

Tran Thi Dinh is a lecturer at Vietnam National University of Agriculture. She has a PhD in Bioscience Engineering from KU Leuven, Belgium. She has more than 20 years of teaching and research experience. Her research interests are food systems, food value chains, food safety risk assessment, functional foods, and postharvest technology of fruits and vegetables. She has published more than 60 international and national peer-reviewed articles.

Ramasamy Srinivasan
Program Leader, Safe and Sustainable Value Chains, World Vegetable Center

Ramasamy Srinivasan is an entomologist and the flagship program leader for Safe and Sustainable Value Chains at the World Vegetable Center. He has more than 19 years of research and development experience in strategic and adaptive research in South Southeast and Central Asia, as well as sub-Saharan Africa. He has published more than 200 research and development publications on integrated pest management in tropical vegetable production systems and other topics.

Pepijn Schreinemachers
Program Leader, Enabling Impact, World Vegetable Center

Pepijn Schreinemachers is a senior researcher at World Vegetable Center where he leads the research programs on Enabling Impact and Healthy Diets. He has broad research interest that includes work on vegetable seed systems and variety adoption, impact studies of vegetable interventions, food safety, food choice, and farm management. His educational background is in agricultural economics and development studies and he holds degrees from Wageningen University & Research and the University of Bonn.

Leave your question or comment in the section below:

The views expressed on this website are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) or its Board of Governors or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. By making any designation of or reference to a particular territory or geographic area, or by using the term “country” in this document, ADB does not intend to make any judgments as to the legal or other status of any territory or area.