Overview New technologies being ushered by the Fourth Industrial Revolution are fundamentally changing the way we live, work, and relate to one another. In the field of education, these technologies are unlocking new opportunities for learning, just as they are also challenging people about the way they learn, unlearn, and relearn. Trends and Challenges From virtual reality to predictive analytics and from online boot camps to interactive simulations—technology is paving new ways to enhance educational access around the world. At the Asian Development Bank’s 7th International Skills Forum, Paul Kim, chief technology officer and assistant dean of the Stanford Graduate School of Education, said artificial intelligence—the new engine that is going to launch the Fourth Industrial Revolution—is the major disruptor in education. Paul Kim, chief technology officer and assistant dean of the Stanford Graduate School of Education, says it is important to encourage critical thinking and creativity among students. He said human beings must have the capability to “reboot” their minds and “learn to unlearn and relearn.” He cited these trends posing major challenges to both learners and education providers as the world surges ahead into the Fourth Industrial Revolution: 1. Nearly half of all jobs are at risk from automation and computers in the next 20 years. The advent of artificial intelligence is making the future of jobs uncertain and the relevance of skills more important. What may seem as adequate technical skills today may soon be rendered obsolete. Therefore, only those that are agile enough to adapt to the rapidly changing work ecosystem will endure. 2. Rapid technological advancements are creating “new collar jobs.” More intelligent and powerful computing resources are creating “new collar jobs,” which require specialized or relevant skills, often obtained through vocational training, not necessarily a 4-year college degree. Some companies have actually started to invest in job training programs of their own, or partner with schools to equip students with the exact skills they will need to get a job. 3. Learning is no longer just for the privileged few. People used to pay for access to lifelong learning or continuing education. With so many technologies emerging and social media networks becoming a vehicle for education, more education entrepreneurs are offering just-in-time and on-demand disposable learning tools for all ages that used to be privileged opportunities for an elite group of learners. Thus, people need to learn to be more agile in adopting self-regulated learning skills and critical questioning skills. 4. The new innovators come from those who question. People must be encouraged to ask critical questions freely. Current schooling and training models need to be updated to focus more on enablement: shifting the kind of questions from fact searching to questions that seek explanations. Lifelong learners are the designers and makers who must create their own jobs again and again; they must know how to question in order to innovate. Thus, training opportunities need to be redesigned, not just to hone technical competencies, but also to better integrate critical questioning skills. 5. The future of education is all about a complete rebooting, not incremental change. Current schooling and training models need to be updated to focus more on enablement, engagement, and empowerment while learning activities must incorporate design thinking, solution making, and problem solving tasks, leveraging emerging computing resources, including artificial intelligence. Resources P. Kim, ed. 2014. Massive Open Online Courses: The MOOC Revolution. New York: Routledge. World Economic Forum. 2016. Fourth Industrial Revolution Explained. Business report. 15 January. Related links Explainer: How to Enhance Skills Development with Digital Learning Insight: Five Ways to Use Information and Communication Technology for Education Insight: A Successful Example of How to Shift to Cyberlearning Event: 7th ADB International Skills Forum Ask the Experts Paul Kim Chief Technology Officer and Assistant Dean, Stanford Graduate School of Education Paul Kim served as an advisory committee member for National Science Foundation (2012-2015) and member of the Grand Challenges for International Development Committee at National Academy of Sciences (2011-2013). He has taught graduate-level courses and massive open online courses (MOOCs) related to educational entrepreneurship, technology design, and international development for the past 16 years. Follow Paul Kim on Leave your question or comment in the section below: View the discussion thread.