Introduction Uzbekistan has been making significant progress in enhancing its road infrastructure to facilitate trade, improve local economic prospects, and create social opportunities. An efficient and climate-resilient road network is crucial for the country’s continued growth and integration into regional and global economies. The financial sustainability of road network operations is critical to sustaining the country’s success in this area. Financial sustainability is about managing resources effectively and aligning the proposed improvements with broader Sustainable Development Goals. This includes taking low-carbon transport road sector pathways and working toward achieving the objectives of the Paris Agreement. An important step toward road project financial sustainability is identifying potential funding sources, such as government funds, international development agencies, and private sector investments, for construction, maintenance, and operations. Securing Funding Sources Government budget allocation As the primary stakeholder in road infrastructure development, the Government of Uzbekistan can allocate a more significant portion of its budget toward implementing road network improvements, maintenance, and operations. This funding can be directed toward developing digital systems, upgrading design standards, and investing in innovative materials and technologies. From an economic and financial perspective, each investment may be assessed using the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV). International development agencies and financial institutions Multilateral development banks (MDBs), such as the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the World Bank, and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), can provide financial support, technical assistance, and capacity building for Uzbekistan's proposed road infrastructure improvements. MDBs can help mobilize funds, facilitate knowledge sharing, and provide expertise in implementing sustainable and climate-resilient road projects. By collaborating with international development agencies and financial institutions, the Government of Uzbekistan can access additional funding sources, enhance project implementation capacity, and ensure that road infrastructure projects align with global best practices and standards. Private sector investment Public–private partnerships (PPPs) can encourage private sector involvement in road infrastructure projects by providing a structured collaboration between the government and private entities. This partnership model can help bridge the funding gap for infrastructure development and ensure that the necessary expertise, skills, and resources are available for the successful implementation of projects. One of the critical advantages of PPPs is the ability to share risks and rewards in infrastructure development. This means that both the public and private partners can distribute responsibilities and potential gains or losses, thereby reducing the overall risk for each party. By sharing risks, PPPs can make large-scale infrastructure projects more feasible and financially viable for both the government and private investors. Risk sharing in PPPs can also improve project outcomes by incentivizing both partners to invest in the project's long-term success. This includes focusing on sustainable design, high-quality construction, and efficient road infrastructure operation and maintenance. Moreover, PPPs can increase efficiency in planning, designing, constructing, and operating road infrastructure projects. Private sector participation can introduce innovative technologies, materials, and practices that can improve the overall quality and sustainability of the projects. Involving the private sector in infrastructure development can foster competition and drive innovation as private companies strive to develop new solutions and approaches to meet project requirements. To attract private investment and participation, the Government of Uzbekistan can further develop its regulatory and investment environment, including policy frameworks, procurement processes, and incentives. Developing auxiliary road infrastructure, such as camping sites, hotels, and rest areas, can also be explored. Conclusion Funding sources are essential to securing the necessary resources for implementing or continuing projects. They help create a stable financial foundation for infrastructure development and maintenance. Policy makers must prioritize actions and allocate resources effectively to achieve positive impacts on Uzbekistan's road infrastructure. This includes assessing the urgency and feasibility of different recommendations, considering the alignment with national and international sustainable development goals, and evaluating the potential return on investment. Policy makers can develop a clear roadmap to ensure that the proposed improvements are well-coordinated, cost-effective, and contribute to the country's broader sustainable development objectives. By harnessing innovation, improving standards and guidelines, leveraging public-private partnerships, and ensuring long-term maintenance and operational efficiency, Uzbekistan can create a modern and sustainable road infrastructure that serves the needs of its citizens and contributes to the achievement of national and global climate goals. Ask the Experts Akmal Nartayev Principal Financial Management Specialist, Procurement, Portfolio and Financial Management Department, Asian Development Bank Akmal Nartayev joined ADB as a senior financial management specialist in 2017. He has been the financial management focal for ADB’s Central and West Asia projects since 2018. He has more than 20 years of work experience, including 12 years of professional experience in the Big Four auditing firms, providing advisory services in Almaty, London, Moscow, and Nur-Sultan offices. Follow Akmal Nartayev on Pawan Karki Principal Transport Specialist, Transport Sector Office, Sectors Group, Asian Development Bank Pawan has 37 years of experience working on transport projects in Asia, EU, and UAE. As ADB project officer, he is responsible for technical assistance, loan processing, and administration of road projects in Central and West Asia. He holds master’s degrees in Highway Engineering from the University of Strathclyde and Civil Engineering from Moscow Automobile and Road Construction State Technical University. Follow Pawan Karki on Asian Development Bank (ADB) The Asian Development Bank is committed to achieving a prosperous, inclusive, resilient, and sustainable Asia and the Pacific, while sustaining its efforts to eradicate extreme poverty. Established in 1966, it is owned by 68 members—49 from the region. Its main instruments for helping its developing member countries are policy dialogue, loans, equity investments, guarantees, grants, and technical assistance. Follow Asian Development Bank (ADB) on Leave your question or comment in the section below: View the discussion thread.