Zerde National Infocommunication Holding (Zerde)(link is external) was established by the Government of Kazakhstan in 2008 to promote the development of information and communication technology. It led the development of e-government in the country until 5 August 2022, when the government reassigned its functions to the Ministry of Digital Development, Innovation, and Aerospace Industry. 


Putting in place policies, systems, and infrastructure for e-government helped improve efficiency, transparency, and people’s access and participation.